Ilhami Colak, Ersan Kabalci, Gianluca Fulli, Stavros Lazarou
Publication Category: Journal Papers Publication year: 2015 Research Area: Smart Grids

The smart grid (SG) as a research area is advancing dealing with a wider range of topics such as power systems, energy generation and telecommunication.

Alexandre Lucas, Fausto Bonavitacola, Evangelos Kotsakis, Gianluca Fulli
Publication Category: Journal Papers Publication year: 2015 Research Area: Smart Grids

Fast charging is perceived by users as a preferred method for extending the average daily mobility ofelectric vehicles (EV). The rated power of fast chargers, their expected operation during peak hours, andclustering in designated stations, raise significant concerns. On one hand it raises concerns about standardrequirements for power quality, especially harmonic distortion due to the use of power electronics con-necting to high loads, typically ranging from 18 to 24 kW h.

Marta Poncela Blanco, Giuseppe Prettico, Nikoleta Andreadou, Miguel Olariaga Guardiola, Gianluca Fulli, Catalin-Felix Covrig
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2015 Research Area: Smart Grids

A smart electricity grid opens the door to a myriad of new applications aimed at enhancing security of supply, sustainability and market competitiveness. Gathering detailed information about smart grid laboratories activities represents a primary need. In order to obtain a better picture of the ongoing Smart Grid developments, after the successful smart grid project survey initiated in 2011, we recently launched a focused on-line survey addressed to organisations owning or running Smart Grid laboratory facilities.

Silvia Vitiello, Gianluca Flego, Alessandro Setti, Gianluca Fulli, Stefano Liotta, Silvio Alessandroni, Luana Esposito, Davide Parisse
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2015 Research Area: Smart Grids

This report, the first of a series of periodic publications, systematically gathers and disseminates information on the smart grid laboratories active in Europe and beyond. The underpinning survey developed by the JRC is a comprehensive attempt to get a complete overview of all the smart grid technologies operational at laboratory level.

Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2014 Research Area: Smart Grids

Member States in line with the provisions of the Third Energy Package1. Subject to the outcome of a possible economic assessment of long-term costs and benefits, Member States are required to prepare a timescale (of up to 10 years in the case of electricity) for the deployment of intelligent metering systems2. This report looks at progress in the EU-273 to date and frames recommendations for the way forward.

Edited by Carlo Cambini, Alessandro Rubino
Publication Category: Books Publication year: 2014 Research Area: Integrated power systems

This book focuses on the two intra-regional initiatives created for the development and integration of energy markets: the Energy Community and MedReg.

The Energy Community and MedReg, apart from their common strategic role in providing a much-needed stable regulatory environment for energy markets in their respective reference countries, represent examples of a diverse development of regional energy initiatives. The former is initiated by external factors and is an example of a top-down approach, whereas the latter is a voluntary bottom-up initiative of the countries involved. The way the institutional framework is built is not without consequences on the functioning and organization of the two regional initiatives.

The book assesses these different approaches and their consequences in the framework of the development of the Energy Community and MedReg, with particular reference to their impact on regional integration, energy policy and institutional change. The analysis is enriched with several case studies on the role of independent regulatory agencies, the promotion of renewable energy sources, infrastructure and interconnection development across the Mediterranean basin and the implications of exporting the EU institutional model. This book is aimed at policy makers, institutions, energy companies and academics to provide a better understanding of the economic and institutional eco-system that characterize the Mediterranean area.

Ettore Bompard, Marcelo Masera, William J. Nuttall
Publication Category: Magazine Papers Publication year: 2014 Research Area: Smart Grids

Future US and European electricity systems will depend on the harmonious evolution of low- and medium-voltage 'smart' grids with high-voltage 'super' grids. Without care, these two developments could undermine, rather than reinforce, one another.

Han, B.; Bompard, E.; Huang, T.; Profumo, F.; Xia, Q.
Publication Category: Conference Papers Publication year: 2014 Research Area: Smart Grids

National decisions and behaviors are strictly interdependent and each of them may affect the whole planet; hence, the harmonization and coordination of the policy are the key issues. This is particularly true in the energy sector, where scarce resources, which are presently unevenly shared by the various nations with the possibility of conflicts arising need to be allocated to keep the pace with economic growth and in a manner compatible with the preservation of the environment. In this paper, we use the concept of “smart energy” as a way to embrace the target to meet commitments to the world's sustainability, and a comparison of the energy policies of two key-world players, the EU and China, is undertaken in this context. A framework for quantitatively assessing the effectiveness of various specific policy tools is proposed. The policies are defined and analyzed with reference to the general goals, the tools to pursue those goals and their outcomes, possibly in a quantitative manner resorting to a set of meaningful metrics.

Colak, I; Bayindir, R.; Fulli, G.; Tekin, I; Demirtas, K; Covrig, C.F.
Publication Category: Journal Papers Publication year: 2014 Research Area: Smart Grids

A smart grid is a system that uses information and communication technologies to integrate, in an intelligent way, all users connected to the electrical power system considering their behaviour and actions. For this purpose, information about the electrical network, such as the current, the voltage or the power, is gathered together over time so that the behaviour of suppliers and consumers can be observed and automatically coordinated. Smart grids are becoming a significant part in the configuration of future electrical power systems. A lot of research has been done on using smart grids to achieve highly efficient and user-friendly electrical power systems. Many new methods have been introduced to solve the difficulties energy providers face when transforming conventional electrical networks into smart grids. These difficulties include the integration of renewable energy and different grid systems at national and international levels due to changes in frequency, voltage and in the synchronisation mechanism.

This paper provides an outline of the European smart grid projects and gives an overview of the current infrastructure and smart grid applications of the Turkish Electricity Production System Operator (EUAS), Turkish Electricity Transmission System Operator (TEIAS), and Turkish Electricity Distribution System Operator (TEDAS). In this paper the feasibility of the further steps required is described and some assessments are made and suggestions given on smart grid developments in general.

Gheorghe, Adrian V., Masera, Marcelo, Katina, P.F.
Publication Category: Books Publication year: 2014 Research Area: Integrated power systems

About this book:

-Contains results of different simulations case studies in energy transitions on how to improve educational programs in leading institutions

-Reader is exposed to latest approaches on dealing with vexing issues of port security, water, and technology transfer to emerging economies

-Contains over 100 tables and illustrations and over 50 color illustrations

This book provides a rough entry into the interdisciplinary field of Infranomics. It enables better decision making in an increasing ambiguous, complex, emergent, interdependent, and uncertain world where we attempt to anticipate modern society trends and patterns in order to react appropriately. However, as with any emerging discipline, much research is needed at the applications and conceptual level. The applications level may require development and testing of methods, tools, and techniques to enable analysis and decision-making in ambiguous, complex, emergent, interdependent, and uncertain conditions while the conceptual level may require taping into driving philosophies, theories, and methodologies that form the basis for Infranomics. Striking the right balance between applications and conceptual foundation (theory) requires rigorous research. This book provides a springboard for robust discussions on applications, theory, and transformation of current thinking to better deal with modern society’s problematic issues using Infranomics.

Ettore Bompard, Gianluca Fulli, Mircea Ardelean, and Marcelo Masera
Publication Category: Magazine Papers Publication year: 2014 Research Area: Super Grids

Several initiatives have been launched in the last decade in the European Union (EU) to align pan-European power grid development with the EU’s policy targets, particularly in the energy and climate change fields. The building of new infrastructures, initially driven mainly by the need for increased cross-border trading and integration of the wholesale electricity markets, is nowadays also strongly supported by the demand for integrating diversified, low-carbon energy sources (e.g., renewable wind and solar sources).

The shape of the power grid in the medium- to long-term future (to 2050) depends greatly on different potential scenarios for the following items: renewable energy deployment (primarily in terms of technologies, performance, and geographical siting); extension of the European electricity network toward neighboring power grids (e.g. those of Northern Africa, the Middle East, and Russia); and the penetration of distributed energy sources that require the development of a smarter power system, especially at lower voltage levels. These factors, by defining preferential patterns for cross-European and intercontinental power flows, will outline the critical structural and operational needs of the European power grid of the future. ...

Catalin Felix Covrig, Mircea Ardelean, Julija Vasiljevska, Anna Mengolini, Gianluca Fulli (DG JRC), Eleftherios Amoiralis (External) Collaborators: Manuel Sanchez Jimenez, Constantina Filiou (DG ENER)
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2014 Research Area: Smart Grids
Smart grid projects are playing a key role in shedding light on how to move forward in this challenging transition. In 2011, therefore, the JRC launched the first comprehensive inventory of smart grid projects in Europe to collect lessons learned and assess current developments.
The participation of project coordinators and the reception of the report by the smart grid community were extremely positive. It was therefore decided that the project inventory would be carried out on a regular basis so as to constantly update the picture of smart grid developments. This study is the 2013-2014 update of the inventory started out in 2011.
The JRC’s 2013-14 Smart Grid database contains 459 smart grid R&D and D&D projects from all 27 European Union countries. UK, Switzerland and Norway were studied together with the EU27 countries since they are present in a substantial number of projects with EU countries. Other 17 non EU countries are represented in the inventory by their participating organisations. The total investment of the smart grid projects amounts to €3.15 billion.
Vincenzo Giordano, Silvia Vitiello, Julija Vasiljevska
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2014 Research Area: Smart Grids

The document presents the methodology elaborated by JRC within the framework of its participation to the work of the Smart Grids Task Force, Expert Group on Smart Grid Infrastructure Deployment (Expert Group 4). The then adopted Regulation 347/2013 on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure provides for the establishment of a EU-wide list of "Projects of Common Interest", a label identifying key energy infrastructure projects in EU. Within this framework, Expert Group 4 had the mandate to define an evaluation framework for projects proposals in the field of smart grids. On the basis of its experience on Cost Benefit Analysis of smart grid projects, JRC developed a multi-criteria assessment framework including: a) a checklist to check that project proposals meet the requirements set out by the Regulation; b) a techno-economic assessment through Key Performance Indicators to capture the key features of each project; c) a Cost Benefit Analysis of each projects.

Bompard, E.; Han, B.
Publication Category: Journal Papers Publication year: 2013 Research Area: Integrated power systems

In emerging electrical distribution systems, a multitude of self-interested individual decision makers interacts among themselves and with the power grid. The optimal operation of the grid, according to a set of predefined technical and economic targets, can be achieved by influencing the behaviors of the decision makers with appropriate market signals. The technical feasibility and performance of the system, for example, in terms of line flow limits, network losses, and appropriate voltage profile, can thus be controlled to a certain extent, by market signals. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for “Market-based Control” for the operation of emerging distribution systems. Characterized by distributed and adaptive control signals over prosumers, market-based control needs to make prosumer benefits aligned with regulator/DSOs concerns, thus satisfying the requirements from both sides. By applying market-based control in network charging, both network and market performances can be improved. The complexity in the environment and in the interactions among players prompt techniques to be derived from complex systems theory. A multiagent model was built up for testing the market control strategies strategy. The concept and applications are illustrated with reference to a standard CIGRE medium-voltage distribution network.

Bompard, E.; Huang, T.; Wu, Y.; Cremenescu, M.
Publication Category: Conference Papers Publication year: 2013 Research Area: Integrated power systems

This paper presents a framework to classify threats to power system secure operation. Threats have long been recognized; however, there lacks a categorical classification of them due to various individual perspectives from different organizations. The power system is evolving to a smart, super, and clean grid, accompanied by interior diversified and emerging threats. Furthermore, threats from exterior factors, intentional and non-intentional, conventional and new-born, to power systems have become more severe than ever before. Therefore, a distinct catalogue, description, and possible impact of these threats are proposed to meet the need of preventing power system from dangers. Using the proposed classification, a quantitative trend analysis of more than a hundred representative historic blackouts is performed to figure out the principal threats and the changing trend of threats over time.

Contributors: J.O. Alabi, G. Bahgat, A.V. Belyi, S.C. Bhattacharyya, A. Boey, C. Brancucci Martínez-Anido, N. Caldes, G. Campbell, A. Cherp, H. Dyer, S. Gaylord, K.J. Hancock, K. Hemmes, J. Jewell, N. Jollands, S.I. Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S. La Branche, Y. Lechón, P. Linares, R.D. Lipschutz, D. Mulvaney, C. Okereke, C. Paskal, I.L.G. Pearson, S. Peters, T. Romanova, J. Scheffran, S. Schott, H.R. Stephan, E. Thomson, M.J. Trombetta, J. Vogler, K. Westphal, S. Wood, T. Yusuf, P. Zeniewski
Publication Category: Books Publication year: 2013 Research Area: Integrated power systems

This Handbook brings together energy security experts to explore the implications of framing the energy debate in security terms, both in respect of the governance of energy systems and the practices associated with energy security. The contributors expertly review and analyse the key aspects and research issues in the emerging field of energy security, test the current state of knowledge, and provide suggestions for reflection and further analysis. This involves providing an account of the multiplicity of discourses and meanings of energy security, and contextualizing them. They also suggest a rewriting of energy security discourses and their representation in purely economic terms. This volume examines energy security and its conceptual and practical challenges from the perspectives of security of supply, security of demand, environmental change and human security. It will prove essential for students in the fields of global, international and national politics of energy, economics, and society as well as engineering. It will also appeal to policy practitioners and anybody interested in keeping the lights on, avoiding climate change, and providing a secure future for humanity.

Fulli, G.; Covrig, F.; Olariaga, M.
Publication Category: Magazine Papers Publication year: 2013 Research Area: Smart Grids

Smart Grid projects play a key role in shedding some light on how to move forward in this challenging transition. To this end, in 2011, the JRC launched the first comprehensive inventory of Smart Gird projects in Europe to collect lessons learned and assess current developments on Smart Grids in Europe [JRC 2011]. The final catalogue was published in July 2011 and included 219 Smart Grid and smart metering projects from EU27 Member States (including 24 smart metering pilots and roll-outs). The overall investment amounted to € 5 billion.

Gracceva, F.; Fulli, G.; Ardelean, M.; Masera, M.
Publication Category: Magazine Papers Publication year: 2013 Research Area: Integrated power systems

The Journal was launched on October 10-11 2013, in Bucharest, during an International Seminar on Critical Infrastructure Protection organized by Romanian Association for the Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Services (ARPIC) with the Romanian Association for Security Techniques (ARTS) and the National Association for Informational Systems Security (ANSSI), with the attendance of prominent private and state companies, as well High Representatives of the Romanian authorities, such as Mr. Iulian Fota, Presidential Advisor for National Security, and Mr. Sorin Encuţescu, State Councilor and Adviser to the Prime Minister on National Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection Coordination, who provided forewords within the Journal. It is edited by ARPIC, together with the EURISC Foundation, and addressed to both Romanian and foreign readers. The new publication aims to bring to the attention of its readers issues regarding Critical Infrastructure and Services Protection at national and European levels, from a wide selection of expert contributors. The promotion of these subjects is vital to the well being of our societies, and involve not just technical considerations, but also issues relating to governance capacity, private-public partnerships, and stakeholder inclusiveness.

Vincenzo Giordano, Joint Research Centre Julija Vasiljevska, Joint Research Centre Silvia Vitiello, Joint Research Centre Constantina Filiou, DG Energy Sebastian Gras, DG Energy Marija Mrdeza, DG Energy
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2013 Research Area: Smart Grids

This report presents the outcome of the evaluation of smart grid project proposals which was carried out by Expert Group 4 (EG4) of the Smart Grid Task Force. The group comprises relevant stakeholders from industry (system operators, manufacturers), regulatory authorities and Member States' representatives. National regulatory authorities have been involved in the evaluation process.

The Expert Group 4 (EG4) was established in February 2012. During the preparatory year of 2012, the task of EG4 was to agree on an assessment framework for the identification of potential projects of common interest (PCI) in the field of smart grids. The assessment framework proposed by the JRC was adopted by EG4 on 4 July 2012. It takes into account the technical and general criteria for the selection of projects of common interest in the field of smart grids, as defined in the trans-European energy infrastructure regulation.

Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2013 Research Area: Smart Grids

Growing concerns over climate change, security of power supply and market competitiveness are challenging the current power system operation and architecture, with the resulting need to integrate increasing shares of renewable and dispersed energy resources. The era of renewable energy, decentralized energy sources and smart grid technologies will empower all prosumers, from households to small and medium sized enterprises, as well as larger companies, to integrate their consumption and production of energy in networks that would function more like ecosystems than markets. The modernization of the grid, with power and data flowing in both directions, to and from the prosumers, will demand and enable new market structures, new services, and new social processes. As a consequence, the most important challenge for policy makers over the next decade will likely be the shift away from a supply-driven perspective, to one that recognizes the need for the integration of the different dimensions and actors of the energy systems. In this context, the aim of the present report is to shed light on the different components of the social dimensions of the smart grids, from the perspective of the consumer, community and society at large, and to highlight and discuss the main challenges that surround it.