Le reti elettriche intelligenti: recenti rviluppi a livello europeo
Meeting the EU’s climate change and energy policy objectives for 2020 and beyond will require a major transformation of our electricity infrastructure. Strengthening and upgrading existing networks is of paramount importance to integrating an increasing amount of renewable energy generation, enhancing grid security, developing the internal energy market and realising energy saving and efficiency.
Smart Grids Chapter of the 2011 Technology Map of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan)
Smart grids are seen as key enablers for the future deployment of sustainable energy, particularly in the context of satisfying the European Union’s (EU) targets for 2020 and beyond. In particular, the share of variable renewable energy sources (RES), such as wind, solar, wave and run-of-the-river hydropower, is predicted to be in excess of 20 % of the total power generation in 2030 [EC DG ENER, 2009]. Moreover, smart grids allow for increased energy efficiency - a requirement for the future power system.
Smart Grid Projects in Europe - Lessons Learned and Current Developments
The main goal of this study is to collect a wide inventory of Smart Grid projects in Europe and use project data to support analysis on trends and developments. The report looks into several aspects of the Smart Grids landscape to describe the state of the art of their implementation, the emerging hallmarks of the new electricity system and the foreseeable developments.
A European supergrid for renewable energy: local impacts and far-reaching challenges
This article assesses the impact of extensive deployment of indigenous and external renewable energy sources on a local electricity system (Sardinia Island) and discusses the main challenges faced by the European power grids in integrating high shares of renewable-based generation technologies. It presents the 2030 scenarios for the Sardinian power system and the results of steady-state analyses in extreme (renewable) generation and consumption conditions.
CDM contribution to RES penetration in the power generation sector of China and India
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could play an important role in the power generation sector of developing countries and emerging economies by providing additional revenues to support the diffusion of renewable energy sources (RES). This paper aims at investigating the contribution of the CDM to the deployment of renewable electricity projects in China and India and at highlighting the main potentialities and limitations of this mechanism for their support.
Evolutions and Challenges towards a Potential Pan-European HVAC/HVDC SuperGrid
The European power transmission grid is on the critical path to meet the European Union (EU)’s climate change and energy policy objectives for 2020. This trend is expected to continue also for the years after 2020, in view of ambitious decarbonisation targets by 2050. The main challenge will be the power system integration of very large amounts of variable renewable energy sources (RES), especially wind and also solar, while keeping overall system reliability at acceptable levels, in a liberalised background. To this scope, a more flexible, yet robust, transmission grid is needed.
The Role of FACTS and HVDC in the future Pan-European Transmission System Development
The present paper focuses on FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System) and HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) transmission technologies. Particular attention is paid to different specific technical, economic and environmental features of these power electronics-based devices. Final aim of the paper is the investigation of the role that FACTS and HVDC may play towards the development of the future pan-European transmission system.
The impact of Distributed Generation on the European Power System - the Italian Experience
In response to the challenges of security of supply, environmental sustainability and competitiveness, which underpin the European Union (EU) integrated climate change and energy policy, the electric power sector in Europe is facing several modifications and developments towards targets for 2020 and beyond.
Application of Innovative Transmission Technologies for the Development of the Future European Power System
The present paper focuses on main technical, environmental, and economic features of three types of advanced transmission technologies, currently having a different level of maturity and deployment in Europe. The devices addressed in this paper are the SSSC (Static Synchronous Series Compensator), the VSC (Voltage Source Converter)-HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) and the GIL (Gas Insulated Line).
Assessing the Reliability of the European Power Grid Using Load Curve Indicators and Topological Characteristics
The European power grid is the largest complex physical network ever made by human kind. The assessment of its reliability has been an ambitious and attractive as well as necessary research field over the past decades. In particular, the assessment of the European power grid by means of topological measures has garnered a great deal of interest among the scientific community. The extension of its analysis and the correlation between load curve indicators and fault events in the European power grid are the main goals of this paper.
The impact of large renewable deployment on electricity high voltage systems
In the last decades an increasing integration of renewable energy sources (RES) in the extra high voltage (EHV) and high voltage (HV) networks, boosted by technical reasons and political decisions has been noticed. RES introduce significant environmental benefits, but also considerable difficulties to power system planning and operation. In fact, if RES are correctly allocated, they allow deferring network upgrade investments and decreasing Joule losses.
Smart Grid Simulation Centre at the Institute for Energy of the Joint Research Centre
The Institute for Energy (IE) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) provides support to Community policies related to energy. Several challenges affect the evolving European energy networks while pursuing the objective of a fully functioning, interconnected and integrated internal energy market. A key concern for policy makers and the energy sector is the increasing risk of supply failure. Providing proper answers demands the analysis of different contingencies and scenarios, and the assessment of the vulnerability, reliability and resilience of the energy systems.
A business case for Smart Grid technologies - a systemic perspective
The digitalization of the electricity grid opens the way to bundle value added services to the electricity commodity, and possibly shift business value to electricity services in line with the notions of efficiency, conservation and sustainability. In this context, market forces should be mobilized within the boundaries of energy policy goals to contribute to the massive investments that are required to fulfill the Smart Grid vision.
Distributed generation and distribution market diversity in Europe
The unbundling of the electricity power system will play a key role on the deployment of distributed generation (DG) in European distribution systems evolving towards Smart Grids. The present paper firstly reviews the relevant European Union (EU) regulatory framework: specific attention is paid to the concept of unbundling of power distribution sector in Europe. Afterwards, the focus is on the current state of penetration of DG technologies in the EU Member States and the corresponding interrelations with distribution features.
Distributed Generation in Europe - the European Regulatory Framework and the Evolution of the Distribution Grids towards Smart Grids
The European Union (EU) Regulatory Framework concerning Distributed Generation (DG) may have a decisive impact on the development of European distribution systems towards Smart Grids. To address this issue, the present paper firstly reviews this Regulatory Framework.
Secondly, focus is on the current state of penetration of DG technologies deployed in the EU Member States, comparing then the level of penetration of distributed generation with the existing number of Distribution System Operators (DSO).
Reliability Analyses on Distribution Networks with Dispersed Generation - a Review of the State of the Art
The electric power system is changing due to several reasons and among these one may find the deployment of dispersed generation (DG). The impact of DG into the electrical network has to be cautiously investigated, considering the several constraints that might arise, for instance, in what concerns reliability.
Modeling and Application of VSC-HVDC in the European Transmission System
The present paper focuses on the technical, environmental, and economic features of VSC-based HVDC technologies. The aim is to investigate the impact of VSC-HVDC on the European power system: specific attention is paid to the transmission capacity enhancement attainable in targeted applications. Towards this purpose, an original steady state model of the VSC-HVDC is presented and tested.
Load-following operating mode at Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and incidence on Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs. Compatibility with wind power variability
In the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding n. JRC.BXL n.30897 between DGTREN and the JRC on the "Supply of Scientific and Technical Support to DGTREN on Nuclear Safety, Waste Management, Radiation Protection, and Sustainability of Nuclear Energy", signed on 25/11/2008 in Luxembourg, this report addresses the request of a report on the "effects of Load Following operating mode at NPPs on the O&M costs; coupling issues with smart grids". This task was included in the work plan set up by JRC and DG-TREN in 2009.
Improving network controllability by Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) and by High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems
The present report aims at describing the main features of two key families of advanced power technologies, which may play a crucial role in the further development of the European transmission system: Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) and High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. These power electronics-based devices offer the possibility to increase transmission network capacity as well as flexibility and generally enhance system reliability, security, and controllability with a limited environmental impact.