Publications


Regional Energy Initiatives. MedReg and the Energy Community


Edited by Carlo Cambini, Alessandro Rubino
Publication Category: Books Publication year: 2014 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Integrated power systems

This book focuses on the two intra-regional initiatives created for the development and integration of energy markets: the Energy Community and MedReg.

The Energy Community and MedReg, apart from their common strategic role in providing a much-needed stable regulatory environment for energy markets in their respective reference countries, represent examples of a diverse development of regional energy initiatives. The former is initiated by external factors and is an example of a top-down approach, whereas the latter is a voluntary bottom-up initiative of the countries involved. The way the institutional framework is built is not without consequences on the functioning and organization of the two regional initiatives.

The book assesses these different approaches and their consequences in the framework of the development of the Energy Community and MedReg, with particular reference to their impact on regional integration, energy policy and institutional change. The analysis is enriched with several case studies on the role of independent regulatory agencies, the promotion of renewable energy sources, infrastructure and interconnection development across the Mediterranean basin and the implications of exporting the EU institutional model. This book is aimed at policy makers, institutions, energy companies and academics to provide a better understanding of the economic and institutional eco-system that characterize the Mediterranean area.


Technology: New electricity grids must develop in sync


Ettore Bompard, Marcelo Masera, William J. Nuttall
Publication Category: Magazine Papers Publication year: 2014 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

Future US and European electricity systems will depend on the harmonious evolution of low- and medium-voltage 'smart' grids with high-voltage 'super' grids. Without care, these two developments could undermine, rather than reinforce, one another.


Paths Toward Smart Energy: A Framework for Comparison of the EU and China Energy Policy


Han, B.; Bompard, E.; Huang, T.; Profumo, F.; Xia, Q.
Publication Category: Conference Papers Publication year: 2014 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

National decisions and behaviors are strictly interdependent and each of them may affect the whole planet; hence, the harmonization and coordination of the policy are the key issues. This is particularly true in the energy sector, where scarce resources, which are presently unevenly shared by the various nations with the possibility of conflicts arising need to be allocated to keep the pace with economic growth and in a manner compatible with the preservation of the environment. In this paper, we use the concept of “smart energy” as a way to embrace the target to meet commitments to the world's sustainability, and a comparison of the energy policies of two key-world players, the EU and China, is undertaken in this context. A framework for quantitatively assessing the effectiveness of various specific policy tools is proposed. The policies are defined and analyzed with reference to the general goals, the tools to pursue those goals and their outcomes, possibly in a quantitative manner resorting to a set of meaningful metrics.


Smart grid opportunities and applications in Turkey


Colak, I; Bayindir, R.; Fulli, G.; Tekin, I; Demirtas, K; Covrig, C.F.
Publication Category: Journal Papers Publication year: 2014 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

A smart grid is a system that uses information and communication technologies to integrate, in an intelligent way, all users connected to the electrical power system considering their behaviour and actions. For this purpose, information about the electrical network, such as the current, the voltage or the power, is gathered together over time so that the behaviour of suppliers and consumers can be observed and automatically coordinated. Smart grids are becoming a significant part in the configuration of future electrical power systems. A lot of research has been done on using smart grids to achieve highly efficient and user-friendly electrical power systems. Many new methods have been introduced to solve the difficulties energy providers face when transforming conventional electrical networks into smart grids. These difficulties include the integration of renewable energy and different grid systems at national and international levels due to changes in frequency, voltage and in the synchronisation mechanism.

This paper provides an outline of the European smart grid projects and gives an overview of the current infrastructure and smart grid applications of the Turkish Electricity Production System Operator (EUAS), Turkish Electricity Transmission System Operator (TEIAS), and Turkish Electricity Distribution System Operator (TEDAS). In this paper the feasibility of the further steps required is described and some assessments are made and suggestions given on smart grid developments in general.


Infranomics - Sustainability, Engineering Design and Governance


Gheorghe, Adrian V., Masera, Marcelo, Katina, P.F.
Publication Category: Books Publication year: 2014 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Integrated power systems

About this book:

-Contains results of different simulations case studies in energy transitions on how to improve educational programs in leading institutions

-Reader is exposed to latest approaches on dealing with vexing issues of port security, water, and technology transfer to emerging economies

-Contains over 100 tables and illustrations and over 50 color illustrations

This book provides a rough entry into the interdisciplinary field of Infranomics. It enables better decision making in an increasing ambiguous, complex, emergent, interdependent, and uncertain world where we attempt to anticipate modern society trends and patterns in order to react appropriately. However, as with any emerging discipline, much research is needed at the applications and conceptual level. The applications level may require development and testing of methods, tools, and techniques to enable analysis and decision-making in ambiguous, complex, emergent, interdependent, and uncertain conditions while the conceptual level may require taping into driving philosophies, theories, and methodologies that form the basis for Infranomics. Striking the right balance between applications and conceptual foundation (theory) requires rigorous research. This book provides a springboard for robust discussions on applications, theory, and transformation of current thinking to better deal with modern society’s problematic issues using Infranomics.


It's a Bird, It's a Plane, It's a Supergrid!: Evolution, Opportunities, and Critical Issues for Pan-European Transmission


Ettore Bompard, Gianluca Fulli, Mircea Ardelean, and Marcelo Masera
Publication Category: Magazine Papers Publication year: 2014 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Super Grids

Several initiatives have been launched in the last decade in the European Union (EU) to align pan-European power grid development with the EU’s policy targets, particularly in the energy and climate change fields. The building of new infrastructures, initially driven mainly by the need for increased cross-border trading and integration of the wholesale electricity markets, is nowadays also strongly supported by the demand for integrating diversified, low-carbon energy sources (e.g., renewable wind and solar sources).

The shape of the power grid in the medium- to long-term future (to 2050) depends greatly on different potential scenarios for the following items: renewable energy deployment (primarily in terms of technologies, performance, and geographical siting); extension of the European electricity network toward neighboring power grids (e.g. those of Northern Africa, the Middle East, and Russia); and the penetration of distributed energy sources that require the development of a smarter power system, especially at lower voltage levels. These factors, by defining preferential patterns for cross-European and intercontinental power flows, will outline the critical structural and operational needs of the European power grid of the future. ...


Smart Grid Projects Outlook 2014


Catalin Felix Covrig, Mircea Ardelean, Julija Vasiljevska, Anna Mengolini, Gianluca Fulli (DG JRC), Eleftherios Amoiralis (External) Collaborators: Manuel Sanchez Jimenez, Constantina Filiou (DG ENER)
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2014 Activity Type: Software / Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids
Smart grid projects are playing a key role in shedding light on how to move forward in this challenging transition. In 2011, therefore, the JRC launched the first comprehensive inventory of smart grid projects in Europe to collect lessons learned and assess current developments.
The participation of project coordinators and the reception of the report by the smart grid community were extremely positive. It was therefore decided that the project inventory would be carried out on a regular basis so as to constantly update the picture of smart grid developments. This study is the 2013-2014 update of the inventory started out in 2011.
The JRC’s 2013-14 Smart Grid database contains 459 smart grid R&D and D&D projects from all 28 European Union countries. Switzerland and Norway were studied together with the EU28 countries since they are present in a substantial number of projects with EU countries. Other 17 non EU countries are represented in the inventory by their participating organisations. The total investment of the smart grid projects amounts to €3.15 billion.

Definition of an assessment framework for projects of common interest in the field of smart grids


Vincenzo Giordano, Silvia Vitiello, Julija Vasiljevska
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2014 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

The document presents the methodology elaborated by JRC within the framework of its participation to the work of the Smart Grids Task Force, Expert Group on Smart Grid Infrastructure Deployment (Expert Group 4). The then adopted Regulation 347/2013 on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure provides for the establishment of a EU-wide list of "Projects of Common Interest", a label identifying key energy infrastructure projects in EU. Within this framework, Expert Group 4 had the mandate to define an evaluation framework for projects proposals in the field of smart grids. On the basis of its experience on Cost Benefit Analysis of smart grid projects, JRC developed a multi-criteria assessment framework including: a) a checklist to check that project proposals meet the requirements set out by the Regulation; b) a techno-economic assessment through Key Performance Indicators to capture the key features of each project; c) a Cost Benefit Analysis of each projects.


Market-Based Control in Emerging Distribution System Operation


Bompard, E.; Han, B.
Publication Category: Journal Papers Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Integrated power systems

In emerging electrical distribution systems, a multitude of self-interested individual decision makers interacts among themselves and with the power grid. The optimal operation of the grid, according to a set of predefined technical and economic targets, can be achieved by influencing the behaviors of the decision makers with appropriate market signals. The technical feasibility and performance of the system, for example, in terms of line flow limits, network losses, and appropriate voltage profile, can thus be controlled to a certain extent, by market signals. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for “Market-based Control” for the operation of emerging distribution systems. Characterized by distributed and adaptive control signals over prosumers, market-based control needs to make prosumer benefits aligned with regulator/DSOs concerns, thus satisfying the requirements from both sides. By applying market-based control in network charging, both network and market performances can be improved. The complexity in the environment and in the interactions among players prompt techniques to be derived from complex systems theory. A multiagent model was built up for testing the market control strategies strategy. The concept and applications are illustrated with reference to a standard CIGRE medium-voltage distribution network.


Classification and trend analysis of threats origins to the security of power systems


Bompard, E.; Huang, T.; Wu, Y.; Cremenescu, M.
Publication Category: Conference Papers Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Integrated power systems

This paper presents a framework to classify threats to power system secure operation. Threats have long been recognized; however, there lacks a categorical classification of them due to various individual perspectives from different organizations. The power system is evolving to a smart, super, and clean grid, accompanied by interior diversified and emerging threats. Furthermore, threats from exterior factors, intentional and non-intentional, conventional and new-born, to power systems have become more severe than ever before. Therefore, a distinct catalogue, description, and possible impact of these threats are proposed to meet the need of preventing power system from dangers. Using the proposed classification, a quantitative trend analysis of more than a hundred representative historic blackouts is performed to figure out the principal threats and the changing trend of threats over time.


International Handbook Of Energy Security


Contributors: J.O. Alabi, G. Bahgat, A.V. Belyi, S.C. Bhattacharyya, A. Boey, C. Brancucci Martínez-Anido, N. Caldes, G. Campbell, A. Cherp, H. Dyer, S. Gaylord, K.J. Hancock, K. Hemmes, J. Jewell, N. Jollands, S.I. Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S. La Branche, Y. Lechón, P. Linares, R.D. Lipschutz, D. Mulvaney, C. Okereke, C. Paskal, I.L.G. Pearson, S. Peters, T. Romanova, J. Scheffran, S. Schott, H.R. Stephan, E. Thomson, M.J. Trombetta, J. Vogler, K. Westphal, S. Wood, T. Yusuf, P. Zeniewski
Publication Category: Books Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Integrated power systems

This Handbook brings together energy security experts to explore the implications of framing the energy debate in security terms, both in respect of the governance of energy systems and the practices associated with energy security. The contributors expertly review and analyse the key aspects and research issues in the emerging field of energy security, test the current state of knowledge, and provide suggestions for reflection and further analysis. This involves providing an account of the multiplicity of discourses and meanings of energy security, and contextualizing them. They also suggest a rewriting of energy security discourses and their representation in purely economic terms. This volume examines energy security and its conceptual and practical challenges from the perspectives of security of supply, security of demand, environmental change and human security. It will prove essential for students in the fields of global, international and national politics of energy, economics, and society as well as engineering. It will also appeal to policy practitioners and anybody interested in keeping the lights on, avoiding climate change, and providing a secure future for humanity.


Insights from the inventory of smart grid projects in Europe - 2012 Update


Fulli, G.; Covrig, F.; Olariaga, M.
Publication Category: Magazine Papers Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

Smart Grid projects play a key role in shedding some light on how to move forward in this challenging transition. To this end, in 2011, the JRC launched the first comprehensive inventory of Smart Gird projects in Europe to collect lessons learned and assess current developments on Smart Grids in Europe [JRC 2011]. The final catalogue was published in July 2011 and included 219 Smart Grid and smart metering projects from EU27 Member States (including 24 smart metering pilots and roll-outs). The overall investment amounted to € 5 billion.


Energy Security – European Perspective and Policy Challenges


Gracceva, F.; Fulli, G.; Ardelean, M.; Masera, M.
Publication Category: Magazine Papers Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Integrated power systems

The Journal was launched on October 10-11 2013, in Bucharest, during an International Seminar on Critical Infrastructure Protection organized by Romanian Association for the Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Services (ARPIC) with the Romanian Association for Security Techniques (ARTS) and the National Association for Informational Systems Security (ANSSI), with the attendance of prominent private and state companies, as well High Representatives of the Romanian authorities, such as Mr. Iulian Fota, Presidential Advisor for National Security, and Mr. Sorin Encuţescu, State Councilor and Adviser to the Prime Minister on National Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection Coordination, who provided forewords within the Journal. It is edited by ARPIC, together with the EURISC Foundation, and addressed to both Romanian and foreign readers. The new publication aims to bring to the attention of its readers issues regarding Critical Infrastructure and Services Protection at national and European levels, from a wide selection of expert contributors. The promotion of these subjects is vital to the well being of our societies, and involve not just technical considerations, but also issues relating to governance capacity, private-public partnerships, and stakeholder inclusiveness.


Evaluation of Smart Grid projects within the Smart Grid Task Force Expert Group 4 (EG4)


Vincenzo Giordano, Joint Research Centre Julija Vasiljevska, Joint Research Centre Silvia Vitiello, Joint Research Centre Constantina Filiou, DG Energy Sebastian Gras, DG Energy Marija Mrdeza, DG Energy
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

This report presents the outcome of the evaluation of smart grid project proposals which was carried out by Expert Group 4 (EG4) of the Smart Grid Task Force. The group comprises relevant stakeholders from industry (system operators, manufacturers), regulatory authorities and Member States' representatives. National regulatory authorities have been involved in the evaluation process.

The Expert Group 4 (EG4) was established in February 2012. During the preparatory year of 2012, the task of EG4 was to agree on an assessment framework for the identification of potential projects of common interest (PCI) in the field of smart grids. The assessment framework proposed by the JRC was adopted by EG4 on 4 July 2012. It takes into account the technical and general criteria for the selection of projects of common interest in the field of smart grids, as defined in the trans-European energy infrastructure regulation.


The social dimension of Smart Grids


Anna MENGOLINI, Julija VASILJEVSKA
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

Growing concerns over climate change, security of power supply and market competitiveness are challenging the current power system operation and architecture, with the resulting need to integrate increasing shares of renewable and dispersed energy resources. The era of renewable energy, decentralized energy sources and smart grid technologies will empower all prosumers, from households to small and medium sized enterprises, as well as larger companies, to integrate their consumption and production of energy in networks that would function more like ecosystems than markets. The modernization of the grid, with power and data flowing in both directions, to and from the prosumers, will demand and enable new market structures, new services, and new social processes. As a consequence, the most important challenge for policy makers over the next decade will likely be the shift away from a supply-driven perspective, to one that recognizes the need for the integration of the different dimensions and actors of the energy systems. In this context, the aim of the present report is to shed light on the different components of the social dimensions of the smart grids, from the perspective of the consumer, community and society at large, and to highlight and discuss the main challenges that surround it.


Global Systems Science and Energy Systems


Marcelo Masera, Ettore Bompard, Anna Mengolini, Gianluca Fulli - DG JRC Ralph Dum - DG CONNECT Joan David Tabara - Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

In the present globally interconnected world, energy is generated, stored, transmitted and consumed and its related waste disposed of or recycled- through a complex and dynamic system of systems. A central challenge for Global Systems Science is to focus on the multiple interactions of different scales of the energy systems: from smart micro-grids to super grids. To what extent can these two approaches coexist? How do these two apparently divergent trends and configurations relate to each other and can be managed for a better coordination and efficiency? Global Systems Science should be able to identify what kinds of factors are most relevant for the global energy systems and to what particular pressures are they more sensitive (e.g. not necessarily prices but perhaps to other variables outside the energy systems). This report presents the key points and open issues in emerging energy systems and highlights questions and challenges to global systems science applied to energy systems. It is based on the discussions and results of the workshop on "Vision in global systems science: energy futures" held in Brussels on 18th and 19th March 2013 and organized by DG Connect in collaboration with Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, Petten.


Advanced Technologies for Future Transmission Grids


G. Migliavacca, G. Fulli, H. Ferreira, A. Purvins, L. Debaberbis
Publication Category: Books Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Software / Desktop Research Area: Smart grids interfaces with Super Grids

The European electricity system has been evolving with a very fast pace in the last years, mostly as a combined effect of two main drivers: the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources (RES), especially wind and solar power plants, and the development of cross-border trade of energy. The former driver causes constantly increasing flows on the North-South European axis (see Fig. 1), connecting zones with high RES potentials (especially North Sea wind offshore and South European solar) with the big loads located in Central Europe, where there are lower RES potentials.


Smart Grid projects in Europe: Lessons learned and current developments 2012 update


V. Giordano, A. Meletiou, C. F. Covrig, A. Mengolini, M. Ardelean, G. Fulli, M. S. Jiménez, C. Filiou
Publication Category: Reports Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

Smart Grid projects play a key role in shedding some light on how to move forward in this challenging transition. To this end, in 2011, the JRC launched the first comprehensive inventory of Smart Gird projects in Europe to collect lessons learned and assess current developments on Smart Grids in Europe [JRC 2011]. The final catalogue was published in July 2011 and included 219 Smart Grid and smart metering projects from EU27 Member States (including 24 smart metering pilots and roll-outs). The overall investment amounted to € 5 billion.


Enabling consumer engagement in the future electricity networks


J. Vasiljevska, A. Mengolini, G. Fulli
Publication Category: Conference Papers Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

Today's electricity system is facing the challenge to respond to growing environmental concerns while assuring sustainable, secure and cost-effective power system operation. Although large scale integration of generation close to load appears as a promising solution to cope with these challenges, much effort is still needed in engaging consumers to take a bigger role in managing their power consumption.


Modeling of a Smart Grid System Using Real Time Data οn Neplan


S. Lazarou, R. Musca, M. Demirtas, G. Fulli, I. Colak
Publication Category: Conference Papers Publication year: 2013 Activity Type: Software / Desktop Research Area: Smart Grids

The simulation model of the Smart Grids Laboratory of the Institute of Energy and Transport is presented in this paper and a day of its operation is analyzed. The developed model simulates six different modules (a photovoltaic array, a Li-ion battery storage system, a small wind turbine, a diesel generator, a laboratory load and the connection point with the grid). The modules are connected radially at a common bus.

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